26 November 2016

Baltic Magus-Land on Idrisi map of 1154 CE

Tabula Rogeriana (lit. "The Book of Roger" in Latin), is a description of the world and world map created by the Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, in 1154. (wiki)

On the Latinised version of this map by Konrad Miller (1928), "ard al magus" lies in what seems to be the Baltic region, translated by Miller as Zaubererland; magicians-land or Heidenland; heathen-land (source, pp. 148-149). Credit for connecting Ard-al-Magus to OLB-Magí goes to Samppo Puranen from Finland (see below).

fragment of Miller's copy of Idrisi map (north and south reversed) ~ see blue markings

In the Oera Linda-book, Mágí and Mágjara are associated with Finna.

According to Goffe Jensma, this is nonsense, and he theorizes that a supposed 19th century creator with this actually parodied orthodox protestants ('fijnen') and their superstition (magical thinking).

On page 111-112 of De Gemaskerde God (2004):
"Deze absurde verbinding van Magi, Magyaren en Finnen ..." (This absurd connection of Magi, Magyars and Finns ...)

"... de historische kolder over Magíaren en Fínnen ..." (the historical nonsense about Magíars and Finns)
~~~

The following information was added by mr. Puranen:
(...) that Al-Idrisi places Finns and Magis near to each other (...) has been known amongst Finnish history students for some years now and all credit of that goes to Finnish publication Hermeetikko Nro.1 from 2012, with the accompanying Arabic text translated into Finnish by Sahban Mroueh.
I (J.O.) asked if he could identify more toponyms in the area of Ard-al-Magus, to which he (S.P.) answered:

Fimark = Finnmark or OLB's "back of our Schoonland"
Tabasta = Tavastia, Swedish or Finland Swedish name for the central Finland region
Rusla = Russia
nahr dnast = possibly river Dvina or Dnepr

Al-Idrisis knowledge is not precise when it comes to physical shape of the land, for Estonia, Finland and Finnmark are in the wrong place regarding the north and the south, albeit the internal order is correct.

I believe the concept of Amazon islands is a synonym for the Terra Feminarum and both refer directly to Finland. "Woman's land" of Kvenland is the northern half of Finnish mainland and southern Finnish mainland is said to have been called either an Island of Finland and a Land of an Island (Ganander 1789: Suomensaari; Bock 1996: Saarenmaa). Thus Al-Idrisi may possible have been in an error by drawing the Amazon islands as separate from the Finnish mainland.
I wrote: "Since the 12th century is so far removed from the OLB times, it might not be a very convincing argument (on itself)." Mr. Puranen answered:
More meaningful than the amount of time between Al-Idrisi's map and events of OLB, is the question if a culture described in OLB survived to the time period when Al-Idrisi's map was made. In the 12th century a heathen Finland was reality in the northern half of the land and it must logically have been a cultural continuation of the older Finnish culture as depicted in the OLB and other sources. Time-wise between the OLB and Al-Idrisi's account of Finns, there doesn't seem to have been any major changes to Finnish culture stemming from the outside:
  • 1st century A.D., apostle Andrew, is alleged to have travelled to southern Russia to preach Christianity, however geographical distance to Finland was great and cultural affection likely minimal (1)
  • few relatively late Swedish-Finnish wars, none of which seems to have resulted in permanent foreign presence in Finland and resulted more likely in temporary payments of so-called Danegeld taxes to Sweden (2, 3, 4)
This is why I put on my own graphics not just the Al-Idrisi map, but also all the other evidence that form a web of evidence stemming of Norse, German, Finnish, Finland-Swedish and Dutch sources. Like the story of blind men and an elephant (5), not one source contains the whole story, yet they all depict one and the same thing.
Infographics by Samppo Puranen:






  NOT READY YET

22 November 2016

The versatile BRUD-word

'Boerenbruiloft' (farmers' wedding) in North-Holland, by J.P. van Horstok, ca. 1808

Het zinryk Bruiwoort, en het geen men deriveert 
Van bruien, dient wel om zyn zinrykheit geleert: 
't Is springen, lopen, doen, verquisten, domineren, 
't Is klimmen, snyen, en verquanzelen, bezeeren, 
Quaatmaken, futzelen, verderven, plagen, gaan, 
En smyten, schoppen; … 't is ook foppen, steken, slaan; 
't Is komen, seggen; en 't is kappen, vliegen, vallen, 
Etcetera, ja dat noch 't mooisten is van allen, 
Vrouw-eeren; is 't niet recht? wie heeft van sulk een woort, 
Zo zinryk, ergens in de werelt meer gehoort? 
("Vol-Geestige Werken" S. van Rusting, 1712)

Some OLB-'skeptics' theorise that the manuscript was created by an individual or a small group of individuals who wanted to make fun of the religious and/or cultural-historical establishment in the Netherlands or more specifically in its province Friesland. They would have to agree that the creator(s) must have had an extensive knowledge of the Dutch language and its older varieties.

One of the words that would have been perfectly suitable to make fun and jokes is the verb bruden/ bruien. The alleged creator(s) would have known this most versatile word and he would not have missed the opportunity to use it. However, as we see in the below fragments, in OLB it is only used in two ways: go/ leave/ journey and spoil/ corrupt/ pervert.

Dictionaries about bruden/ bruien:

Richthofen (Old-Frisian, 1840): Brida


Weiland (Dutch, 1859): Bruijen


WNT (Dictionary of Dutch language, composed later) gtb.inl.nl/bruien (many different meanings here)

possibly related nouns:
BRVD (mud, mess, waste) - 1 (see forum 4 March 2015: link)
BRUD (also spelled BRÉID; bride) - 3,6 (see blogpost: link)

verbs:

(varieties of BRUDA: go/ leave/ journey; total: 11 ~ Note: also see BRIT)
(with HINNE; away:)
HINNE BRÛDA - 2,4
BRÛDON/BRUDON (STOLKES) HINNE - 8,11
BRÛDE HINNE - 12,15
BRUDA HINNA - 17
(with WÉI; away:)
BRÛDON WÉI - 9
WÉI BRÛDA - 16
(other:)
BRÛDE - 7
BRÛDON - 18

(varieties of VRBRUDA: spoil/ corrupt/ pervert; total: 10)
VRBRUDA (inf.) - 5
VRBRUD, VRBRÛD (perf.) - 10,19,22
VRBRÛDE (adj. derived from verb) - 13
VRBRUDA/VRBRÛDA ( ,, ) - 21,23,24
VRBRÛDE (inf.) - 14
VRBRÛDING (noun derived from verb) - 20

######

1 [004/05]
ANDA BRVD SITTE

2 [018/12]
SA MÜGON HJA HINNE BRÛDA

3 [028/27]
SA MÉI SIN BRUD ...

4 [030/15]
HY MÉI HINNE BRÛDA SA.R KVMEN IS

5 [038/15] (see other blog post)
THRVCH WANKÉTHINGA WISTON HJA ALLE TO WISA ÀND TO VRBRUDA.
Ottema: verbreiden

6 [041/12]
... EN BRUD TO SÉKA

7 [041/22]
TILTHJU HI UT OF LANDE BRÛDE

8 [055/04]
(HJA) BRÛDON STOLKES HINNE

9 [056/15]
THA GODA BRÛDON WÉI

10 [061/11]
WAS THÉR HWA FON VS FOLK THÉR.ET ALSA ÀRG VRBRUD HÉDE
O: verbruid

11 [067/03]
BRUDON HI STOLKES HINNE

12 [074/07]
THRÉ MONATHA ÀFTER BRÛDE GÉRT HINNE

13 [078/27]
THÀT VRBRÛDE ÀND VRBASTERDE SLACHT
O: verwende

14 [080/04]
THAT HJARA SÉDE VRBRÛDE KOSTE
O: verloren gaan

15 [086/28]
BRÛDE HJA HINNE

16 [110/15]
TILTHJU THJU FLÁTE WITHER WÉI BRÛDA

17 [120/23]
WI ... BRUDA HINNA

18 [156/17]
FON WAL.HALLA.GÁRA BRÛDON HJA ALINGEN THÉRA SÛDER HRÉNUM

19 [161/16]
THJU TÁLE ... IS ... VRBRÛD
O: verdorven

20 [161/24]
VRBRÛDING VSRA RÉNE TÁLE
O: verontreiniging

21 [197/12]
VSA VRBRUDA BROTHARUM
O: verbasterde

22 [205/14]
THA JUTTAR WÉRON SUNT LÔNG VRBRUD
O: verdorven

23 [209/07]
MITH HULPE FON THA VRBRÛDA FÁMNA
O: ontaarde

24 [210/30]
HJARA VRBRUDA LÉRE
O: verfoeijelijke

19 November 2016

translation variety example

Some OLB-'skeptics' argue that the language of the OLB is simply Old-Frisianised 19th century Dutch. Strong arguments can be made against that. For example, there are many sentences that are still not clear. The example below shows how much variety there is between the existing translations. 

(Prior phrase in Sandbach's translation: "They cunningly made themselves masters of our laws and customs, and ..." ~ The object of the following phrase is, thus: our laws and customs ~ VSA ÉWA ÀND SETMA)


[038/15]
THRVCH WANKÉTHINGA WISTON HJA ALLE TO WISA ÀND TO VRBRUDA

1-Ottema (Dutch, 1872/1876):
door listen en drogredenen wisten zij alles te bewijzen en te verbreiden.
2-Sandbach (English, 1876):
by craft and subtlety were able to explain and spread them around.
3-Wirth (German, 1933):
durch falsche Auslegungen wußten sie alles zu weisen und umzudeuten.
4-Overwijn (Dutch, 1951):
door bedriegelijke redeneringen wisten zij alles te duiden en te bederven.
5-Jensma (Dutch, 2006):
door wanspraak wisten ze alles te verdraaien en te verbruien.
6-De Heer (Dutch, 2008):
door wanspreken wisten zij alles te duiden en te verbruiden.
7-Raubenheimer (English, 2011):
by fallacies they wished to explain everything and expand thereon.
8-Menkens (German, 2013):
durch Trugreden/ Wahnsprache wußten sie alles umzudeuten und zu entstellen.
9-Lien (Norse, 2013):
gjennom falsk tale visste de å anvise og forderve alt.

WANKÉTHINGA (noun plur.)
D: listen en drogredenen (ruses and fallacies) - 1
D: bedriegelijke redeneringen (fallacies) - 4
D: wanspraak ('vainspeech') - 5*
D: wanspreken ('vainspeaking') - 6*
E: craft and subtlety - 2
E: fallacies - 7
G: falsche Auslegungen (false explanations) - 3
G: Trugreden/ Wahnsprache (fallacies/ 'vainspeech') - 8*
N: falsk tale (speak falsely) - 9

* Translations 5, 6 and 8b are the most literal, but the words are obsolete, unclear and seemingly inappropriate.

WISA (verb)
D: bewijzen (prove, establish) - 1
D: duiden (interpret) - 4,6
D: verdraaien (distort) - 5
E: explain - 2,7
G: weisen (point out?) - 3
G: umzudeuten (reinterpret) - 8
N: anvise (point out) - 9

VRBRUDA (verb)
D: verbreiden - 1*
D: bederven (corrupt, pervert) - 4
D: verbruien/ verbruiden ( ,, ) - 5,6
E: spread around - 2*
E: expand thereon - 7*
G: umzudeuten (reinterpret) - 3
G: entstellen (distort) - 8
N: forderve (corrupt, pervert) - 9

* That Ottema mistranslated or misinterpreted VRBRUDA as 'verbreiden' (spread/ propagate), which was copied by Sandbach and Raubenheimer, is remarkable, since the other 9 times this word is used (incl. varieties), he translated more appropriately: verbruid, verwende, verloren gaan, verdorven (2x), verontreiniging, verbasterde, ontaarde, verfoeijelijke (see other blog post).

Main question i.m.o. is how to interpret WISA.

My own provisional translation:
they managed to explain and distort them all through misinterpretations.

10 November 2016

outsmarting all earlier translations

The following may seem just a detail, but it once more shows how all previous translations can still be further improved.

[029/26]
SAHWERSA THÉR SWETHNATA ET SÉMNE KYVA ÀND SANA
If any of our neighbours quarrel and fight...


VR ENZE SÉKA THA VR LÁND

(transliteration Ottema/ Sandbach: vr enga sêka, tha vr lând)

Note that the red and blue marked translations differ significantly from each other:

translation original language English
Ottema 1872 over eenige zaak (anders) dan over land over any matter (other) than land
Sandbach 1876 - about any matter except land
Wirth 1933 über andere Sachen als Land over other matters than land
Overwijn 1951 over een of andere zaak zoals over land over any matter such as land
Jensma 2006 over andere zaken dan over land over other matters than land
De Heer 2008 over enige zaken zoals over land over some matters such as land
Raubenheimer 2011 - over any matter other than land
Lien 2013 over noen (andre) saker enn over land over some (other) matters than land
Menkens 2013 über einzelne Dinge/Sachen wie über Land(besitz) over individual matters such as land(-ownership)


I think THA does not mean 'other than'/ 'except' or 'such as' here, but  'or' (Dutch: of/ dan wel), as it does in the following fragments, also written by Minno:

[030/10] ET WÍRING.GA THA TO AL.MAN.LAND
at Wyringga or at Almanland
[030/30] THÀT.ET FOLK VS LÉT DVATH THA BISTÉLLETH
that the folk does us harm or steals from us

 Thus, the translation would be:

over any cause* or over land 

(* or: case; plural in original; Dutch/ German: zaak/ Sache)

09 November 2016

WRD ~ oord/ Ort, ward, waroþ, ford?

WRD (plur.: -A/-UM) related to Dutch/ German oord/ Ort (place), or English ward or ford, or Old-English waroþ (shore)?

Varieties in OLB (fragment nrs.):

WRDA - 3,5,8,11 (and 1,2,4,6,9,12,13 see below)
WRDUM - 7,14

LJV.WRD - 10
LINDA.WRDA - 1,2,4,6,9
MANNA.GARDA.WRDA - 12
STÁVEREN.S.WRDA - 13 (see fragment 7)

Appearantly, even in the time that the OLB texts were first written, there was already confusion about this word, as becomes clear in fragments 10 and 12.

LJUD.WÉRD - 10
MANNA.GARDA.FORDA - 12

Werden (Essen, Germany) in the 17th century.


Possibly related words in various languages:

oord - Dutch (place, spot)
Ort - German
oarde - Frisian
ord - Old-Saxon, Old-Frisian, Old-English

waard - Dutch (land enclosed by water)
Wert, Werder - German
wertha - Old-Dutch
werde, wert, waerd(e) - Middle-Dutch
warid, werid - Old-High-German (island)
waroþ - Old-English (coast, shore)

ward - English, Old-Saxon (a guarding, protection; used for administrative districts)
weard - Old-English
Wart - Old-High-German
vörðr - Old-Norse

ford - English (shallow part of river/stream that can be crossed by wading)
voorde - Dutch
vort, vorda - Middle Dutch
Furt - German
furde - Frisian

OLB fragments:
(As in the previous post, I don't include translations as this is an inventory for future reference only.)

1 [005/11]
GRÉVETMAN (...) OVIR.A LINDA.WRDA

2 [029/15]
BÀRN ANDA LINDA.WRDA

3 [066/22]
THÁ KÉMON THA LANDWÉRAR UT ALLE WRDA WÉI

4 [087/20]
GRÉVETMÁN OVIRA LINDA WRDA

5 [093/27]
TO HULLANDE VSA WRDA IN THIKKE THJUSTERNISE

6 [116/09]
THA WALDA THÉRA LINDA WRDA

7 [118/25]
THA WRDUM FON STÁVERE ÀND THAT ALDERGA

8 [140/21]
SÁ SKILUN THÉR IN ALLE WRDA MÀNNISKA VPSTONDA

9 [143/10]
MIN TÁT HETH SKRÉVEN HO THA LINDA.WRDA ÀND THA LJUD.GÁRDNE VRDILGEN SEND.
LINDA.HÉM IS JETA WÉI. THA LINDA.WRDA FAR EN DÉL.

10 [143/20]
THÉR.VMBE IS THÀT ROND.DÉL NW LJUD.WÉRD HÉTEN.
THÁ STJÛRAR SEGATH LJV.WRD MEN THAT IS WAN.SPRÉKE

11 [145/06]
THA LJUD FON ALLE WRDA

12 [151/02]
(...) NÉI MANNA.GARDA.WRDA.
MANNA.GARDA.WRDA IS FARIN THIT BOK. MANNA.GARDA.FORDA SKRÉVEN.
MEN THAT IS MIS DÉN

13 [157/23]
DÁNÁ TÁGON HJA INOVIR STÁVEREN.S.WRDA

14 [196/13]
THAT ALD ÀND JONG ÛT ALLE WRDUM WÉI KÉMON

###

Notes:

- [113/25] TO LJUD.WARDJA BIN IK TO ASGA KÉREN.
LJUD.WARDJA IS EN NY THORP. BINNA THENE HRING.DIK FON THÉR BURCH LJUD.GARDA

- WRDA in OLB also is the verb to be or become (Dutch/German: worden/werden). Examples:

[035/22] BETER WRDA WILLA - want to become better
[071/24] KÀMPAD WRDA MOTA - must be fought
[103/09] GOD TO WRDA - to become good

Varieties: WRD, WRDE(N), WRDATH, WRDON, WRDANE etc.

- Second meaning "waard" more likely (?) as there are many more old toponyms with this and "ord" originaly meant point(?).

http://gtb.inl.nl/iWDB/search?actie=article&wdb=VMNW&id=ID86062&lemmodern=waard
http://gtb.inl.nl/iWDB/search?actie=article&wdb=ONW&id=ID5039&lemmodern=waard
http://gtb.inl.nl/iWDB/search?actie=article&wdb=VMNW&id=ID45781&lemmodern=oord
http://gtb.inl.nl/iWDB/search?actie=article&wdb=ONW&id=ID4421&lemmodern=oord

- Possibly related toponyms:
Werden (Essen, Germany)
Leeuwarden/ Ljouwert, Bolsward, Ferwert, Holwerd, Jorwert, etc. (Friesland, NL)
Vorden (Gelderland, NL)

- How other words starting with WR- survived or changed:
WRALDA - OERoude, URalte / WEReld, WORld
WRDEN - WORden, WERden
WRSKRÍVA - OVERschrijven
WRSARA - WERser

the word WORD/ WIRD/ WORT

This post is a quick one for future reference. I will not add translations, only list the varieties of the OLB word for 'word' and show the varieties in modern languages.

Varieties in modern languages:

word - English
woord - Dutch, Afrikaans
Wort - German
wurd - Frisian
ord - Danish, Swedish, Norse
orð - Icelandic
(verbum - Latin)
(var̃das - Lithuanian)
(vā̀rds - Latvian)

Varieties in OLB:

singular:
WIRD - 2 (fragment nr.)
WORD - 5,9,11
WORT - 10
 ANDWARDA (answer, Dutch/German: antwoord/Antwort) - 13
 GRÉDWIRD (complaints) - 14
 FÔR.WORD (foreword) - 6
 SPRÉKWORD (proverb, lit. 'speakword') - 16

plural:
WIRDA - 1,3,4
WORDA - 8,12,15,17,19,20
WORDE - 7
WORDON - 18

{Note: used twice in OLB: (WITHER) WORDA - to become, Dutch/German: worden/werden; the root of this verb is usually spelled WRD, WERTH, WÀRTH, WARTH}

{Note on page 91 different spelling; lines 21 - 27}

OLB fragments:

1 [00b/06] (page/line)
HJA SPRÉKATH SWÉTA WIRDA

2 [001/16]
TO THA LESTA FRÉGE ÁDELA THÀT WIRD

3 [008/16]
HÜNING SWET WÉRON HJRA WIRDA

4 [008/24]
VMBE SKOTSE WIRDA WÀRTH HJU ÍRE

5 [032/01]
THÀT WORD ÉWA IS TO FRÁN

6 [050/26]
ALSA IS THÀT FÔR.WORD

7 [062/17]
THI RÉD THÉR HJU JEF WAS IMMER IN THJÛSTERE WORDE

8 [065/03]
THÁ HJU THI LERSTE WORDA UT HÉDE

9 [086/15]
NW WIL IK NJVDA THATSTE THIN WORD JECHT

10 [091/21]
NW FRÉGE MIN BURCH.FÁM THET WORT

11 [091/27]
THA HJU THET WORD GUND WAS

12 [097/25]
VPPJRA GRÀF.STÉN HETH MÀN THISSA WORDA HWRYTEN

13 [103/27]
TÁL ÀND ANDWARDE

14 [114/04]
IN MIN JÜGED HÉRD.IK GRÉDWIRD AL.OMME

15 [132/11]
HWÉRSA HJA SPRÉKA SÁ NOMATH HJA THA WORDA FÁR VPPA THÉR LERST KVMA MOSTA

16 [134/13]
HWAMES GOD.HÉD ÀND KLÁRSJANHÉD TO EN SPRÉKWORD IS WRDEN

17 [142/22]
FON THRJU WORDA SKILUN VSA ÀFTERKVMANDE
AN HJARA LJUDA ÀND SLÁVONA THA BITHJUTNESSE LÉRA.
HJA SEND. MÉNA LJAVDA. FRYHÉD ÀND RJUCHT.

18 [148/29]
ÀND THÉRVR FÉLO WORDON WIXLAD WÉRON

19 [158/29]
BIDROGLIKA WORDA SPRÉKA

20 [162/09]
SÁ SKILUN THA WORDA FRÍ.SA ÀND RJUCHT.HÁ TO HJARA INKVMA

first version of the Dutch 'reading-plank' (1894) by schoolteacher M.B. Hoogeveen

02 November 2016

The R in LERST ~ late - later - (at) last

source: dialect-vertaler at mijnwoordenboek.nl

The R in the word for last: LERST(-A/-E), which appears 9 times in the OLB, can be a strong argument in favour of its authenticity. Old-Frisian dictionaries of the 19th century (and probably newer ones as well) only list "lest" without an R. (See examples Richthofen and Köbler below.)

As far as I know, "lerst" - with R - appears only once in Richthofen's voluminous (600+ pages) "Friesische Rechtsquellen" (1840), on p.235, Emsiger §26:
Tha lerste, huasa lath werth wr marar anda wr merca...
How likely is it that the supposed hoaxers would have been inspired by this single exception, when they ignored so many more easily usable words and expressions from the known dictionaries? For example, Richthofen's dictionary has several examples of expressions with "lest", which were not used in OLB (only 'to tha lesta'?).

Richthofen (1840):

let (...) 3) im superl. letzte:
'thi blata is lethast alra nata' R. 122,1;
'sterue thet leste' (der kinder) R. 116,5;
'alsa ist al to there lesta' (weihe) R. 125,17;
'then lesten thredden del' E. 210,33;
'hi selua (schwöre) thine forma and thine lesta' (von 12 eiden) H. 54,15;
'dioe feste hetene' W. 394, 22;
'dina lesta ferdban' W. 436,27;
'thi lesta willa (der letzte wille) thera foreferena' 149,17;
'thene lesta dei' B. 155,3. 175,7;
'oppa thene lesta ende' (lebensende) B. 176,9. E. 188,21;
'op syn lesta tiid' W. 105,15;
'oen da lesta einde' W. 425,18. 433,17;
'aller lest' (zu aller letzt) W. 399,12;
'uppa leste' (zuletzt) H. 354,23;
'to tha lesta' H. 352,27.
Aus dem positiv let (piger, segnis, tardus), ahd. laz, alts. lat, ags. laet, isl. latr, neufr. let Epk. 265, entspringt der comparat. leter (tardior, posterior), ahd. lezzer, alts. lator, ags. lator, laetr, und superl. letast (tardissimus, ultimus), ahd. lezzest, ags. latost. Für letast erscheint fries. gewöhnlich die gekürzte form lest, saterl. und neufr lest Het. 242 und Epk. 265, wie im alts. last, lazt, lezt. Hierüber und dass im hd. allmählig der compar. lezzer in dem sinne von pigrior erstarrte, und seitdem eine neue form letzterer für ulterior gebildet wurde, s. Grimm 3, 612. 613. 621. Compos. tolesta. 

Köbler (2014):
lest (1), le-st, afries., Adj. (Superl.): nhd. letzte; ne. last (Adj.); Vw.: s. end-e-; Hw.: vgl. anfrk. letist, ahd. lezzisto*; E.: s. le-t; W.: nfries. lest, Adj. (Superl.), letzte; W.: saterl. lest, Adj. (Superl.), letzte


Below all OLB-fragments are listed with
1) LÉT (late),
2) LÉTER, LÉTTER(E), LÉTAR (later),
3) LEST(-E/-A/-EN), LERST(-E/-A) (last).
This is merely an initial inventory. Much more analysis can be done on it, for example if there is significant variety between the various authors/ texts.

Note: LEST is also used some times for trick/ruse (Dutch/German: List).

###

1) LÉT (2x)
late - English
laat - Dutch
let - Frisian

[082/13] Denmarks lost
ET WÉRE TO LÉT
it was too late

[095/16] Brunno
THACH TO LÉT
too late though

###

2) LÉTER, LÉTTER(E), LÉTAR
later - English, Dutch
letter - Frisian

LÉTER - 6x
LÉTTER - 2x
LÉTTERE - 1x
LÉTAR - 1x

[061/01] Tunis and Inka
LIK VSA STJÛRAR LÉTER DÉN HÀVE
 like our steersmen have done later

[069/01] Jon
SÁ WI LÉTER HÉRDON
 as we heard later

[114/24] Frethorik
ACHT JÉR LÉTTER
eight years later

[115/04] id.
THRJU JÉR LÉTTER
 three years later

[117/29] id.
TJAN JÉR LÉTTERE
 ten years later

[130/19] Ljudgert
THRJA DÉGA LÉTER
three days later

[141/21] Dela
THUSAND JÉR LÉTER
 thousand years later

[201/25] Askar
HWÁNATH HI LÉTER ÛTGVNG
 whence he later went out

[205/12] id.
EN JÉR LÉTER
one year later

[209/01] id.
LÉTAR HÀVON HJA
later they have

NB! (also used for 'later' are: ÀFTER and FORTHER)

###

3) LEST(-E/-A/-EN), LERST(-E/-A)

last - English
laatst(e) - Dutch
letzt(e) - German
lêst(e) - Frisian

LEST - 1x (ET LEST)*
LESTE - 1x (ET LESTE)
LESTA - 27x (TO THA LESTA - 17x, TO LESTA - 5x, TO THÀT LESTA - 1x, TO LÔNGE LESTA - 3x, ALONT THA LESTA - 1x)*
LESTEN -1x (TO LESTEN)
total: 30x

*4x LEST for trick/ ruse; 2x LESTA for idem plural)

LERST - 1x
LERSTA - 8x (TO THA LERSTA - 5x, TO LERSTA - 1x, TO LONGA LERSTA - 1x, THA LERSTA - 1x)
LERSTE - 5x (always used as normal adjective)
total: 14x

(NB: also used: ENDLIK for finally)

###

[001/16] Adela's speech
TO THA LESTA FRÉGE ÁDELA THÀT WIRD
finally Adela asked 'the word' (to speak)

[010/28] ode to Frya
TO THA LESTA SPRÀK TÒNGAR UT.A WÒLKA
in the end thunder spoke from the clouds

[011/14] Frya's Tex
TO THA LESTA SKILUN HJA MY HWITHER.SJA
in the end they shall see me again

[021/07] general laws
ÀND TO THA LESTA HJARA SELVA
and in the end themselves

[024/13] laws of mother and kings
ALONT THA LESTA
until the last

[033/19] Minno
TO THA LESTA KLÀPPATH HJA SLÁVONA.BANDA
in the end they clamp slave-shackles

[037/22] id.
TO LESTA LIK THA BARGA
in the end like the pigs

[039/06] id.
KÉMON WI TO THA LESTA
at last we came

[039/11] id.
ALSA.K ET LEST (...) WANDELDE
so in the end I traded

[058/19] Tunis and Inka: burg Stavre, Waraburg
TO THA LESTA KÉMON HJA
at last they came

[059/12] id.
GVNG TO LERSTA ELLA GOD
at last all went well

[062/30] burg Walhallagara
TO THA LESTA KÉMON ALLE STJÛRAR
at last all steersmen came

[064/12] id.
INNA LERSTE TÍD
'in the last time' (lately)

[065/03] id.
THI LERSTE WORDA
the last words

[068/15] id.
TO THÀT LESTA. LIK EN BUHL
in the end like a bull

[068/29] burg Texland
TO THA LESTA KÉMON HJA
at last they came

[069/11] id.
TO LESTEN KÉMON HJA
at last they came

[073/02] Gértmanna
TO THA LESTA FÍLON HJA
in the end they fell

[074/20] id.
ET LESTE LÁNDON HJA
they finally landed

[075/31] Fryasburg
AS ER TO LESTA SA
as he finally saw

[076/07] id.
HETHER TO LESTA (...) KRÉJEN
in the end he (has) received

[077/16] id.
THAT ER TO LÔNGE LESTA
that he at long last

[077/24] id.
TO LESTA ALLÉNA INTHA LANDIS TAL
in the end only in the language of the land

[080/06] Denmarks lost; on all burgs
TO LÔNGA LESTA BROCHTON HJA
at long last they brought

[083/18] id.
TO LÔNGA LESTA ÉPENDE HJU
at long last she opened

[084/19] id.
TO THA LESTA SKIL THAT FENINIGE KWIK
in the end the poisonous animals shall

[086/07] id.
AS ER TO LESTA EN SKIP
when at last a ship
In letzter Minute (1939)

[087/28] Adelbrost
HIRA LERSTE WILLE
her last will (testament)

[093/19] Brunno
NÉI THÉRE LERSTE ACHT
after the last assembly

[105/07] Trást
TO THA LESTA HÀVON HJA
at last they have

[110/17] Apollanja
TO THA LERSTA KÉMON WI
lastly we came

[118/17] Frethorik
TIL ER TO THA LESTA
until in the end

[123/31] id.
THO THA LESTA KÉM.ER
at last he came

[132/12] id.
THÉR LERST KVMA MOSTA
that must come last

[134/18] Wiljo
THA LERSTE WILLE
the last will (testament)

[138/15] Dela
TO THA LERSTA MOST.ER FLUCHTA
in the end he had to flee

[139/08] id.
TO LONGA LERSTA SÉIDON HJA
at long last they said

[147/27] about Friso
TO THA LESTA BIJONDON THA SÉ.LANDAR
in the end the Sealander began

[148/30] about Friso
FRÉJE FRISO TO THA LESTA
finally Friso asked

[196/12] about Askar
TO THA LERSTA WARTH.ET
in the end it became

[199/15] id.
FON THA LERSTA KÉMON TO THA LERSTA EN ÉLE HÁPE
of the last a whole heap came in the end

[204/29] id.
TO THA LESTA WÀRTH HJU
in the end she became

[207/10] id.
THAT HJA TO THA LERSTA
that they in the end